Efektifitas Suplementasi Zat Besi Pada Balita

Tahun 1997 Volume 32 Nomor 4
Oleh : S. Fatimah Muis, Wahyu

Iron deficiency anemia is still one of the four nutritional problem in Indonesia. Its prevalence is high among the pregnant-lactating mothers, the pre-school children pre and the low-income workers . Many studies have revealed the consequences of iron deficiency anemia in growth, development, learning achievement among the pre-school as well as the school children. In Indonesia iron supplementation has been an on-going program for pregnant women, however there has not yet a national supplementation program that is directed toward-school or school children.

A study to find the effectiveness of iron supplementation using different dosage (weekly vs daily) and two different ways of distribution that are free-of-charge and with small amount of payment (Posyandu vs Pos Obat Desa) was carried out in an endemic malaria area. Seven hundred and fifty pre-school children from 5 kecamatan were taken for 4 months of supplementation trial. The kecamatans were randomly assigned into control area 4 different treatments i.e. : daily-free distribution, weekly-free distribution, daily-with payment and weekly-with payment. The hemoglobin value of the samples were measured in-duplo, using cyanment method at the beginning, the end of second and the end of fourth month of the study.

The study revealed a prevalence of 55% among the studied pre-schoolers (ranging from 40.4% to 70.2% by area), with the highest prevalence occurs in 12 – 23 month-olds. At the beginning of the study the mean hemoglobin values were between 11.68 gr/dl (control area) and 10.45 gr/dl. After 4 months of supplementation the mean hemoglobin values in 4 treated areas were above 11 gr/dl. However, at the end of the supplementation the anemia prevalence still ranged from 16.5% to 47.9%. In the control area the prevalence increased as much as 20.3%. There is no significant difference in the mean hemoglobin change of the four study areas given different treatment for 4 months. There is no adverse effect due to the iron-syrup intake being reported by the parents or cadres involved in the study.

Based on the study findings it is of importance that health authority should consider to start a wide program to overcome iron deficiency anemia among the pre-school children using Posyandu and Pos Obat Desa channels with weekly dosage, if we want that the next generation should have the chance of optimum growth and development.